Ashok Kotwal
The challenge of job creation
Posted on: 15 Dec 2017
The process of economic transformation that entails labour transitioning from low- to high ... read on »
GST Explainer: Introduction
Posted on: 16 Oct 2017
Seventeen years after its framework was formed, India’s biggest tax reform – the goods and ... read on »
Introducing a new feature: ‘Explainers’
Posted on: 16 Oct 2017
Our day-to-day lives are tossed around due to economic changes, resulting sometimes from g ... read on »
On demonetisation
Posted on: 23 Dec 2016
On the evening of 8 November, the Prime Minister announced on national television that Rs. ... read on »


Falling behind: India under colonial rule
Bishnupriya Gupta
Posted on: 21 Feb 2018
Topics:   Economic Growth

At the time of independence, India was among the poorest countries in the world. This column argues that the main reason for India falling behind during the colonial rule was inadequate investment in agriculture and the consequent decline in agricultural productivity. While traditional industries declined faced with competition from British goods, modern industries emerged and grew relatively fast.
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Communicating uncertainties in GDP data
Amey Sapre , Rajeswari Sengupta
Posted on: 19 Feb 2018
Topics:   Economic Growth
Tags:   GDP , data

In recent times there has been a lot of controversy around the accuracy and reliability of Indian GDP estimates. In this article, Amey Sapre and Rajeswari Sengupta contend that much of this confusion stems from the lack of publicly available information about the sources and margins of errors and data quality. Communicating the limitations of official data to the public in a credible and transparent manner may mitigate the extent of uncertainty around GDP estimates.
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Union Budget 2018: The reality behind the rhetoric
Sudipto Mundle
Posted on: 16 Feb 2018

In this article, Sudipto Mundle contends that given Union Budget 2018-19 was the current government’s last full budget before the next general election, headline-grabbing proposals were particularly important. Hence, a close scrutiny of the actual numbers is necessary, separating rhetoric from reality, to arrive at a sober assessment of the budget.
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Union Budget 2018: What will the pivot to agriculture cost?
Bharat Ramaswami
Posted on: 14 Feb 2018

The Union Budget 2018-19 focusses heavily on agriculture and rural development. In this article, Bharat Ramaswami analyses the key proposals pertaining to investment in agricultural markets and infrastructure, and provision of price support to farmers in order to boost their incomes.
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Podcast: Parikshit Ghosh speaks with Debraj Ray
Parikshit Ghosh , Debraj Ray
Posted on: 13 Feb 2018

In this podcast, I4I Editor Parikshit Ghosh (Associate Professor, Delhi School of Economics) speaks with Debraj Ray (Julius Silver Professor, Faculty of Arts and Science, and Professor of Economics, New York University) on the rise of Trump and how it relates to the upsurge of inequality in the US and the ‘American dream’ narrative; implications of the process of automation for the relative shares of capital and labour as factors of production; the idea of committing a share of gross domestic product for the provision of a universal basic income; and the challenges involved in addressing inequality of wealth.
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Union Budget 2018: Unpleasant arithmetic and the art of the possible
Maitreesh Ghatak
Posted on: 13 Feb 2018

In this article, Maitreesh Ghatak contends that while the Union Budget 2018-19 deserves some praise for signalling priorities given the constraints, it disappoints in terms of its vision of reforms.
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Union Budget 2018: Some hits, some misses
Bhaskar Dutta
Posted on: 09 Feb 2018

In this article, Bhaskar Dutta critically analyses the Union Budget for 2018-19 in terms of announcements for the rural and agricultural sector, healthcare, and manufacturing, and implications for fiscal consolidation.
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Value, not volume: Four ways entrepreneurs can help restore trust in India’s healthcare providers
Chintan Maru
Posted on: 09 Feb 2018
Topics:   Health

India’s healthcare providers are facing a crisis of public distrust. In this article, Chintan Maru contends that the root of the problem is the way healthcare is paid for. He explores how health entrepreneurs can undertake the transformation from pay-for-volume to pay-for-value, thereby aligning the interests of healthcare providers and patients.
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Do stock exchange listings help ease financial constraints of SMEs?
Nidhi Aggarwal , Susan Thomas
Posted on: 07 Feb 2018
Topics:   Finance

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are viewed as an engine of economic growth and source of job creation. In an attempt to ease their financial constraints, India and some other countries, have experimented with enabling SMEs to access public markets by listing their shares on exchanges with less stringent criteria. This column analyses the impact of listing on the fortunes of SMEs in India.
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Union Budget 2018: Not as expansionary as appears at first blush
Ila Patnaik
Posted on: 05 Feb 2018

In this article, Ila Patnaik assesses the implications of the recently announced Union Budget for inflationary expectations and monetary policy.
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