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Social Identity

Expanding opportunities in India’s labour market: Gender, skills, and migration

In September 2019, the International Growth Centre (IGC) organised a panel discussion in New Delhi to bring together experts to deliberate on the evidence around the causes of low female labour force ...

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Fifteen years of gender budgeting in India: A Retrospective

In this year’s Union Budget, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced that she will constitute a committee to evaluate 15 years of gender budgeting. It entails looking at the budget through the...

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Religion, minority status, and trust

A key factor that drives segmentation in societies is group identities along various dimensions. This column seeks to understand the effects of identity on individual behaviour. Based on an artefactu...

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How female foeticide has influenced fertility and parental investments in girls

The introduction of ultrasound technology in India has been documented to have led to a phenomenal increase in abortion of female fetuses. However, this column finds that it also decreased son-biased ...

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Encountering deprivations in the field

Several women in India face domestic violence, are not allowed to work, and need to seek permission from husbands or in-laws to carry out basic tasks. In this note, Singhal and Vernekar share their e...

  • Notes from the Field

Quota policies and career advancement: Evidence from Indian politics

Can quotas for women in politics induce institutional change in the long run? This column examines whether affirmative action for women in Indian local government had spillovers into state and nation...

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The demographic impact of extended paid maternity leave in Bangladesh

In March 2017, Indian Parliament passed the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill, 2016 extending paid maternity leave to 26 weeks. This column analyses the impact of extension of paid maternity leave i...

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Cash transfers to end child marriage: The Indian experience

For over two decades, policymakers in India have been experimenting with conditional cash transfers to address the issue of child marriage. In this article, Amin et al. contend that financial incenti...

  • Perspectives

Holy wars: Temple desecrations in medieval India

The rise of extremist groups such as the Taliban and the Islamic State, and their destruction of religious relics, have led some to magnify the presence of religious bigotry in Islamic societies. Usi...

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Getting India's women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach

In this article, Rohini Pande, the Mohammed Kamal Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, contends that raising India’s stubbornly low rate of female labour force participation will r...

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Women and work in Asia: Insights for India's low female labour force participation

In this article, Sher Singh Verick, Deputy Director, ILO’s Decent Work Team for South Asia and Country Office for India, shows how India compares with other countries in Asia as well as with other ...

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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The demand side

National Sample Survey data shows a decline in rural women’s workforce participation between 2004-05 and 2011-12. Rising rural incomes and women’s education over the same period have been taken a...

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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The supply side

Analysis of National Sample Survey data shows that low rates of female labour force participation in India are concentrated among married women in rural areas. This column suggests that this is partl...

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Introduction to e-Symposium: Women and work in India

Female labour force participation in India has been low and stagnant over the past few decades. I4I Editor Farzana Afridi is hosting an e-symposium to examine research that explores the reasons for t...

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What explains the low and stagnating female labour force participation in India?

In this article, Stephan Klasen gives an overview of the existing evidence on the supply- and demand-side drivers of female labour force participation in India.

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Recent Contributors

Saad

Saad Gulzar

Stanford University

Ben

Ben Pasquale

Independent Researcher

Nicholas

Nicholas Haas

Aarhus University

Chirantan

Chirantan Chatterjee

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Eric

Eric Hanushek

Stanford University

Shreekanth

Shreekanth Mahendiran

University of Lausanne

Arindam

Arindam Sarkar

Reserve Bank of India

Onkar Shivraj

Onkar Shivraj Swami

Reserve Bank of India

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Most Popular Social Identity Posts

Sex ratios and religion in India and South Asia

In South Asia, low child sex ratios are increasingly an isolated Indian phenomenon. Within India, child sex ratios are ‘normal’ among Christians and Muslims but much lower among Hindus, Sikhs, and...

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Impact of the two-child limit for local politicians

Some Indian states debar individuals with more than two children from contesting local elections. This column finds that while the law has significantly reduced fertility among the general population...

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Political reservation in India: The effect on poverty

Over the last 60 years, India’s Constitution has set aside seats in parliament for people from historically discriminated groups, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This column documents one...

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