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How class and caste influence school choice

Families' socioeconomic status impacts how parents make decisions regarding their children's education. Taking into account the interplay of caste and class, this paper finds that when families are to...

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A permanent cordon-sanitaire: Dalits and Muslims in urban India

Near-perfect segregation and hierarchical ordering of residential space, based on caste or religious identity, is a well-known feature of rural India. Studies have also documented the persistence of s...

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Are women politicians good for economic growth?

There has been a phenomenal global increase in the proportion of women in politics in the last two decades, but there is no evidence of how this influences economic performance. This article investiga...

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Forced male sterilisation and violence against women: Evidence from ‘Emergency India’

During 1975-1977, the Government of India introduced a programme involving forced sterilisation of men, in order to achieve population control as a poverty alleviation measure. Leveraging the varying ...

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Soil characteristics, women’s workforce participation and intra-household consumption distribution

When women’s participation in agriculture increases relative to men, does the intra-household distribution of consumption become more gender-equitable? Is there a positive impact on children’s acc...

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How social norms hold women back: A look at recent evidence

In light of India’s low female labour force participation rate, as a follow up to International Women’s Day, I4I Deputy Managing Editor Nikita Mujumdar highlights a selection of economic research ...

  • Perspectives

Should girls be ‘controlled’? Opinions among young boys and parents in Bihar

The practice of child marriage among girls continues to be common in Bihar. In this note, Priyadarshini, Joshi and Bhattacharya present findings from their survey of boys and parents, wherein they con...

  • Notes from the Field

Mahila Samakhya: Women’s education through empowerment

While girls are now at par with boys in school enrolment, they continue to lag behind in terms of the number of years spent in formal education. In this context, this article assesses the impact of th...

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Women and health in India

This International Women’s Day, I4I Editorial Advisor Nalini Gulati presents a curation of economic research on women’s health in India, encompassing aspects of maternal and child health, gendered...

  • Perspectives

All is not well: Unintended consequences of maternity leave policy in India

In 2017, mandated paid maternity leave for women employees in India was increased from 12 weeks to 26 weeks. Analysing data for 160,000 households, this article finds that the policy change caused a f...

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Coping through acceptance: What shapes attitudes towards intimate partner violence

In many instances, tolerance for intimate partner violence (IPV) exists even among its victims, with women justifying their partners' behaviour as a coping mechanism. This article investigates the cau...

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India’s Women’s Reservation Act: A big win for governance and beyond

Amidst debates about the recently passed women's reservation act and whether it will reduce gender disparities on the ground, Wattal and Gopalan summarise evidence from a number of randomised evaluati...

  • Perspectives

Assessing gender disparities in entrepreneurship and employment in India

Economic growth depends on successful utilisation of the entire workforce. Ejaz Ghani argues that gender equality is not only a key pillar of human rights, but could be a powerful tool for sustaining ...

  • Perspectives

The distributional consequences of political reservations

This article identifies and attempts to fill in the gaps in understanding the effects of reservations for Scheduled Castes (SCs) in Panchayats. Using data from a state-wide census, multiple administra...

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Bring a friend: Leveraging financial and peer support to improve women’s reproductive agency

In the second of two articles about women’s fertility and family planning, S Anukriti et al. highlight findings which reveal that women are more likely to avail of family planning services if they a...

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Recent Contributors


Sarah Vincent

Aix Marseille School of Economics


Aditi Singh

University of British Columbia


Bipasha Maity

Ashoka University


Sutirtha Bandyopadhyay

Indian Institute of Management Indore


Nikita Mujumdar

Deputy Managing Editor, I4I


Anamika Priyadarshini

Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)


Madhu Joshi

Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)


Shubha Bhattacharya

Centre for Catalyzing Change (C3)

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Most Popular Social Identity Posts

A division of labourers: Caste identity and efficiency in India

Castes in India are closely associated with certain occupations and determine the jobs done by millions. This study uses a new dataset to show that a large proportion of workers still work in their ca...

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Hindu-Muslim fertility differentials in India: An update

Building on past research, Saswata Ghosh and Pallabi Das estimate the state- and district-level fertility differentials between Hindus and Muslims using data from the latest round of the NFHS. They sh...

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Sex ratios and religion in India and South Asia

In South Asia, low child sex ratios are increasingly an isolated Indian phenomenon. Within India, child sex ratios are ‘normal’ among Christians and Muslims but much lower among Hindus, Sikhs, and...

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