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Social Identity

Expanding opportunities in India’s labour market: Gender, skills, and migration

In September 2019, the International Growth Centre (IGC) organised a panel discussion in New Delhi to bring together experts to deliberate on the evidence around the causes of low female labour force ...

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Fifteen years of gender budgeting in India: A Retrospective

In this year’s Union Budget, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced that she will constitute a committee to evaluate 15 years of gender budgeting. It entails looking at the budget through the...

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Religion, minority status, and trust

A key factor that drives segmentation in societies is group identities along various dimensions. This column seeks to understand the effects of identity on individual behaviour. Based on an artefactu...

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Getting India's women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach

In this article, Rohini Pande, the Mohammed Kamal Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School, contends that raising India’s stubbornly low rate of female labour force participation will r...

  • Perspectives

Women and work in Asia: Insights for India's low female labour force participation

In this article, Sher Singh Verick, Deputy Director, ILO’s Decent Work Team for South Asia and Country Office for India, shows how India compares with other countries in Asia as well as with other ...

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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The demand side

National Sample Survey data shows a decline in rural women’s workforce participation between 2004-05 and 2011-12. Rising rural incomes and women’s education over the same period have been taken a...

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Declining female labour force participation in rural India: The supply side

Analysis of National Sample Survey data shows that low rates of female labour force participation in India are concentrated among married women in rural areas. This column suggests that this is partl...

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Introduction to e-Symposium: Women and work in India

Female labour force participation in India has been low and stagnant over the past few decades. I4I Editor Farzana Afridi is hosting an e-symposium to examine research that explores the reasons for t...

  • Symposium

What explains the low and stagnating female labour force participation in India?

In this article, Stephan Klasen gives an overview of the existing evidence on the supply- and demand-side drivers of female labour force participation in India.

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The battle for backwardness

Ahead of the assembly elections in Punjab, the state government granted ‘Other Backward Classes’ status to Rajput Sikhs. In this article, Rohini Somanathan contends that caste reservations first ...

  • Perspectives

Women's empowerment and changing social norms: Persistent effects of a one-time targeted in-kind transfer in India

The project explored how a targeted social reform - the “Cycle program” in Bihar - affected the aspirations and behaviour of young women. The Cycle program was successful in increasing enrolment i...

  • IGC Research on India

What explains the decline in female labour force participation in India?

It is often argued that female labour force participation is declining in India due to rising incomes that allow more women to stay at home, which is the preferred household choice in a predominantly...

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Why are older women missing in India? The age profile of bargaining power and poverty

The ratio of women to men is particularly low in India relative to developed countries. It has recently been argued that close to half of these ‘missing’ women are of post-reproductive ages. What...

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Courting women's votes: What does this mean for women?

In the recent state assembly elections in Tamil Nadu, political parties targeted women voters with specific handouts and proposed policies such as alcohol bans. This column contends that while the in...

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Women and the Indian job market: Glass ceiling or sticky floor?

The gender wage gap among regular wage and salaried workers in India was 49% in 2009-10. This column finds the bulk of the gap is due to discrimination against women in the job market, rather than di...

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Marcello Pérez-Alvarez

Erlangen-Nürnberg University

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Marta Favara

University of Oxford

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Manisha Shah

University of California, Los Angeles

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Justin Cook

University of California, Merced

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Parikshit Ghosh

Delhi School of Economics

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Aparajita Dasgupta

Ashoka University

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Anisha Sharma

Ashoka University

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Most Popular Social Identity Posts

Sex ratios and religion in India and South Asia

In South Asia, low child sex ratios are increasingly an isolated Indian phenomenon. Within India, child sex ratios are ‘normal’ among Christians and Muslims but much lower among Hindus, Sikhs, and...

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Impact of the two-child limit for local politicians

Some Indian states debar individuals with more than two children from contesting local elections. This column finds that while the law has significantly reduced fertility among the general population...

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Political reservation in India: The effect on poverty

Over the last 60 years, India’s Constitution has set aside seats in parliament for people from historically discriminated groups, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This column documents one...

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